Jewish Culture & Tradition

World Jewry in Be’er-Sheva“The ingathering of the exiles.”

Be’er-Sheva has a truly integrated, international citizenry, consisting of Jewish immigrants from 72 countries of origin (from all 5 continents), including the last remnants of the Albanian and Yemenite Jewish communities, and a Karaite (Jewish) community, as well as 3 generations (and counting) of native-born Israeli Beershevans. Like Abraham the Patriarch, the metropolitan-oasis Capital of the avot-0102Negev welcomes newcomers, offering a full spectrum of sociocultural and religious traditions and lifestyles, so that everyone may feel at home. It is a pluralistic and multilingual city, with virtually no intra-religious or inter-ethnic tensions or urban ‘ghettos’. 

Jewish religious organizations

The Be’er-Sheva Rabbinate and Religious Council is located at 8A ha-Talmud St. – 08-620400, 1-599-515-959. As of 2017, the Chief Rabbi of Be’er-Sheva and Head of the Rabbinic Courts is Rabbi Yehuda Deri (b.1958-). The Rabbinate handles all Jewish ritual matters: kashrut – 08-6204026; bridal instruction – 08-6204017; weddings – 08-6204014; circumcisions – to find certified mohalim on Internet search in 144 – the online telephone directory;  funerals & Hevrah Kadisha (burial society) –  08-6204006; re. mourning customs Rabbi Abraham Tariki, 054-4586152; in case of afterhour emergenciesRabbi Abraham Lorber, 054-4348735 or Rabbi Shlomo Ohayon, 054-4458580. The Religious Council trains rabbis to supervise kashrut and to officiate at circumcisions, weddings & funerals in accordance with Jewish law and ethnic customs.

The Bnei Akiva Yeshivah “Ohel Shlomo” (founded 1962) on the Kiryat Wolfsonohel-shlomo-kiryat-wolfson campus in the Daled neighborhood prepares rabbinical students for ordination, most of whom not only graduate with honors, but pass the qualifying examinations to become practicing rabbis – 08-6411041.

Synagogue congregations

As of 2017, Be’er-Sheva has ca.237 synagogue congregations (thus far), categorized as follows:  ca.197 Sephardic; ca.22 Ashkenazic; ca.3 Yemenite; ca.2 Ethiopian; 1 Karaite; 1 Conservative (“Eshel Avraham”); 1 Reform (“Ramot Shalom”); and 10 named, but eshel-avraham-synagogueuncategorized congregations. With the development of each new neighborhood, more synagogues are built. Also as of 2017, there are ca.13 mikvehs (ritual bath-houses) in the city (thus far).

The Karaite community and synagogue are located in the Old City, under the leadership of Rabbi Moshe Firrouz; most of the members came from Egypt. They are distinct from mainstream Judaism, since they do not accept Jewish ‘oral law’ and the post-biblical rabbinic traditions and strictly adhere to the fundamental dictates of the Hebrew Bible. For example (like Muslims today), they remove their shoes before entering holy places. They are accepted as Jews and their marriages are recognized by the State of Israelhttp://www.karaite.korner.com.

Egalitarian Congregation “Eshel Avraham” (lit., Abraham’s tamarisk, founded 1977), located in the Tet neighborhood, belongs to the Conservative Judaism Movement and, as such, practices mixed family seating and grants women full equality and active participation in all the religious rites and ceremonies–some Conservative women are ordained rabbis or trained cantors, and they often lead the prayer services or chant the Torah (Bible)eshel-avraham-synagogue portion. “Eshel Avraham” also runs a kindergarten and an elementary school and provides classes and lectures in Judaica for adults (in Hebrew, English and Spanish). The congregation’s office: 08-6420989, 08-6100738, http://www.eshelavraham.org.  Menucha Nechona,” is an alternative Jewish cemetery (located just past theNew Cemeteryon the Hatserim Road) that provides non-Orthodox burial options. Office located in the Gozlan Building at 78 Hadassah St. – 08-6233239, http://www.menucha-nechona.co.il.

“Kehilat Beerot” (lit., the wells community; founded 2010) is a Jewish, progressive, Kehilat Beerotpluralistic congregation consisting of new immigrant and native Israeli families, situated at Beit Yatziv, 79 ha-Atsma’ut St. in the Old City, 050-2755149. 

Jewish education and resources

As of 2017 (5778), Be’er-Sheva has: over 83 Jewish-religious kindergartens (ca.82 public, 1 Conservative & additional private Ultra-Orthodox); 24 Jewish-religious elementary schools (16 public, 1 Conservative & 7 Ultra-Orthodox); and over 6 Jewish-religious high-schools  (6 public and several Ultra-Orthodox residential yeshivas, e.g. accredited “Torah Or” Yeshivah in the Old City). Ben-Gurion University of the Negev grants degrees in: Jewish History, Jewish Thought, and Middle East Studies, while Kaye Academic College of Education accredits the region’s Bible teachers.

Across Be’er-Sheva, there are now at least 13 programs for adults and senior citizens that teach Judaica: in the Old City at the Shirat ha-Rambam” and “Netivot Shalom” synagogues; in the Aleph neighborhood at the Central Chabad House; in Bet at Kolel Chabad House“Orot Yisra’el; in Gimel at Bet Moriah (the first Israeli religious military prep-school); in Dalet at Kolel “Iske Torah;in Hey at the Rambam” Synagogue; in Tet at Congregation“Eshel Avraham; in Yud-Aleph at Chabad’s “Bet Mashi’ah;  in Nahal Ashan at “Ahavat Hannah” Synagogue; and in Neveh Ze’ev at “Minhat Yehudah” Synagogue and the Chabad House (where they also check phylacteries (tefillin) and mezuzot for the doorposts).

Each Sabbath day (Saturday) at 11:30, the City of Be’er-Sheva provides free, openBet Yatsiv Youth Hostel public lectures (in Hebrew) on that weeks’ Sabbath Bible portion at the Public Library building, given by one of the resident rabbis or Bible scholars.

A special course that certifies volunteer to’anim rabbaniyim (lit., rabbinic pleaders), to help people present their cases in small-claims courts, is given at Yad la-Banim (locatedMemorial for Fallen Soldiers across from City Hall) in the office of Re’em –  the volunteer associations’ umbrella organization – 050-7333143.

For classic Judaica resources in English go to:  http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud. For a comprehensive database on Jewish prayer and prayer in rabbinic literature, see Dr. Uri Erhlich‘s “Mif’al ha-Tefilah” at http://hsf.bgu.ac.il/djt/sfiles/ehrlich.aspx

Jewish community life and religious experience

There are at least 3 currently active religious Jewish youth movements in Be’er-ShevaBene Akiva”; “Ezra”; and “Noar Dabesh (Religious Be’er-Sheva Youth)”; and one newly established traditional Jewish youth movement – “No’am Be’er-Sheva” – Emily Shapira, 054-9535651.

To share a communal Jewish experience, students are invited to attend Sabbath & BGU logo2holiday meals and prayers, Judaica classes and Jewish social events at the BGU Campus “Hillel House”http://www.HillelBGU.org.il.

Beer-SovaEvery year, open public Passover (Pesahseders are held at “Be’er Sova” (the Be’er-Sheva NPO ‘soup kitchen’); at the Central Chabad House; and at Congregation “Eshel Avraham.”

Jewish personages/key figures

Since 1997, Rabbi Yehuda Deri (b.1958-) has been serving as the Chief Rabbi of Be’er-Sheva and Head of the Rabbinic Courts.

Rabbi El’azar Abuhatsera, called “Baba El’azar” (1948-2011) was a descendant of the famous Moroccan Sepharadi rabbinic family of Cabbalists. He ‘held court’ in Be’er-Sheva and enjoyed a very large following, even including some Ashkenazim, until his murder by a deranged petitioner. His son (the wealthy heir apparent), Rabbi Pinhas Abuhatsera (1977-), remains  in Be’er-Sheva with his family in the Hey neighborhood, has adopted a more Ultra-Orthodox Ashkenazi style and runs several educational institutions, frequently giving public classes.

Rabbi Mazor Bahaina (b.1973-) resides in Be’er-Sheva with his large family. He serves as the Chief Rabbi for the Ethiopian Community of Be’er-Sheva and as a member ofrabbi-bainah-KM the Be’er-Sheva Rabbinate. He also served as a Member of the 17th Knesset (2008-2009) on behalf of the “Shas” (Sepharadi religious) Party – 08-6442651.

Rabbi (ha-Ga’on) Benjamin Basri (1956-2013), born in Iraq, served as the Chief Rabbi of the Haredi (Ultra-Orthodox) community of Be’er-Sheva until his untimely death. He founded “Yeshivat Bet Yosef,” supported the Be’er-Sheva soccer team and instigated the mass public Selihot services held in the Soccer Stadium every fall (preceding the holiest day on the Jewish calendar – the Day of Atonement/Yom Kippur). 

Tunisian Gaon, Rabbi Chai Taieb “Lo-met” (1774-1836) is remembered and celebrated every winter by the Tunisian community of the “Chai Taieb” Synagogue in the Daled neighborhood and others in Be’er-Sheva.

Rabbi Chayim Chouri (1885-1957; born into the ancient Jewish priestly caste (kohanim), came to be known after his death as “The Saint of Be’er-Sheva.” He was a brilliant Tunisian rabbi, a tsaddiq (lit., a pous, righteous man) and the author of Derekh Hayyim (1905), consisting of commentaries on the Hebrew Bible and rabbinic Tomb of Rabbi Haim Huriliterature. After his demise, North African Jewry in Be’er-Sheva deemed him ‘a holy man’ and instituted a massive annual pilgrimmage to his enshrined tomb in Be’er-Sheva (also considered to be a holy place) on the anniversary of his death (May/June), accompanied by an imposing hillula (lit., an exuberant, Cabbalistic celebration).

Rabbi Misha’el Makhluf Dahan (1920-1997), dubbed “the Grandfather of Jewish Law,” arrived from Morocco and settled in Be’er-Sheva in 1950 and was promptly chosen to serve both as a judge in the Be’er-Sheva Rabbinical Courts and as the Chief Sepharadi Rabbi (1950-1997), which he did faithfully for 47 years, until his death in 1997. He published two Hebrew books: Lev Melakhim, a commentary on the Passover Haggadah and Musar Melakhim, on Jewish ethics. After his death, annual memorial hillulot are held in his memory every fall.

Rabbi Haim Hwati Twito was the founder of “Ets haim – ve-yatsa hoter”  (lit., the Tree-of-Life and its offshoot) Spiritual Center, located at 6 Ringelbloom St. in the Daled neighborhood. His hillula has usually been celebrated by the Sepharadi community (mid-May/June) every year since his death in 1987.  

Jewish religious art, architecture & music

Most commissioned Jewish religious artwork may be found in the synagogues throughout the city, such as: stained-glass windows, woodwork, kes-barukh-ethiopian-synagoguemarblework, silver ornaments, embroidered curtains, etc., created by local professionals or international artists. For example: the Tunisian “Ya’ir Mazuz” and the “Melits”  synagogues in Ne’ot Lon; the Moroccan “Or Hayyim” Synagogue in Yud-Aleph; and the Iraqi Central “Star” Synagogue in Aleph neighborhood and others have beautiful stained-glass windowsSpecial Torah arks, for instance, may be seen made of marble and wood in Chabad’s “Bet Mashi’ah” and in the “Kes Barukh” Synagogue in Yud-Aleph, or inset into a carved marble niche at the South African synagogue Bet ha-Aron” (lit., home of the ark), while the “RinatRinat Yerushalayim Synagogue Yerushalayim” Synagogue in Hey and the “Melits”  Synagogue in Ne’ot Lon have wooden bas-reliefs, silver Torah ornaments and embroidered curtains

The Be’er-Sheva Municipality with the Be’er-Sheva Rabbinic Council occasionally sponsor evenings of  Sephardic piyyutim (eastern Jewish hymnology); Ashkenazic hazanut (western Jewish cantorial music); and Yiddish cultural evenings.

There are a number of Be’ershvan artists who focus(ed) on biblical and Jewish motifs inHannah Helen Rosenberg their art, such as: Moshe Gabay, Hannah Helen Rosenberg, and Vladimir Shneider, to name just a few.

Annual Jewish events

***Note that Judaism observes a solar-adjusted lunar calendar with a 19-year cycle, which includes 7 ‘pregnant years’ that repeat the month of Adar (having an Adar A & an Adar B). These 13-month, ‘pregnant years’ are the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th & 19th years of each cycle. Thus, on the ‘pregnant years’, some Jewish holidays and memorial days, that are celebrated according to their Hebrew dates, may appear to be celebrated or observed one month ‘later than usual’ on the Gregorian calendar.

***Annual memorial hillulot (lit., exuberant, Cabbalistic celebrations) are held on the dates of the deaths of famous rabbis in honor of their legacies. In November 2017, a special women’s hillulah was also held to honor Rachel, the biblical matriarch, and this may also become an annual event in Be’er-Sheva

***Traditionally, Selihot (lit., penitential prayers) services are held in many synagogues at night during the Jewish months of Elul and Tishre (that precede the holiest day on the Jewish calendar – the Day of Atonement/Yom Kippur, Oct./Nov.). Annual mass public Selihot service is held in the Soccer Stadiumunder the auspices of the Chief Ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) community’s rabbi.

On Jerusalem Day each year (May/June), a traditional flag-dance is sponsored by the Municipal Culture Dept. in conjunction with the local Rabbinate & Bet Moriah. Thousands of young people from the religious youth groups participate in this celebratory event.

Each year on Lag b’Omer (the 33rd day of the counting of the Omer, i.e. the 49 days between the Jewish holidays of Passover and Shavu’ot, Apr./May), a special parade is sponsored by Chabad in the Vav neighborhood in honor of  Rabbi Shim’on Bar Yohai, also known by the acronym RASHBIin which hundreds of children participate.

Every year, at the end of Simhat Torah (the Jewish holiday celebrating the Hebrew Bible in Oct./Nov.), the public is invited to participate in haqafot sheniyot (i.e., marching, singing & dancing with the Torah scrolls outdoors), starting from the “Imre Yosef” Yeshivah and ending at the central plaza in the Ramot neighborhood, under the auspices of Rabbi Yoram Hacohen, the Head of the Yeshivah and founder of an entire “Imre Yoseh” Haredi education system: kindergartens, a kolel for young men, and classes for adults.  

Another annual spring tradition in Be’er-Sheva is to hold a special national meeting honoring the service of Israel’s dedicated beadles (gaba’im; volunteers who handle all the synagogue’s logistics and scheduling throughout the year).    

More interesting facts and tips about Jewish Be’er-Sheva

Regarding kashrut: Never assume that a food-stand, restaurant or store is kosher just because it’s in Israelnot all are! The Be’er-Sheva Rabbinate issues dated kashrut certificates that are usually clearly on display in the entrance; if not displayed, ask to see a valid certificate.

Regarding religious paraphernaliaThe Center for the Strict Observance of the Commandments, located outside the Central Be’er-Sheva Train Station, checks the kashrut of tefillin (phylacteries) and mezuzot (scrolls for doorposts), as well as selling kosher religious items. All the Chabad Houses in Be’er-Sheva also check the kashrut of religious paraphernalia.

Sadly, the City of Be’er-Sheva doesn’t have a municipal genizah (i.e., a respectable storage place set aside for ruined or invalidated sacred texts, religious paraphernalia, or even Israeli flags). Such items may be taken to the Be’er-Sheva Rabbinate  in the Daled neighborhood on ha-Talmud St. for proper handling and later burial in a Be’er-Sheva Cemetery; some synagogues do have small, interim genizot of their own, as well.

 

 

 

 

Islamic Culture & Tradition

Be’er-Sheva’s Great Mosque (Jama’), financed by the local Bedouin population and built by the Ottoman Empire, was completed in 1906, but was never actually consecrated or used as a place of worhip. Until 1953, it served as the city’s courthouse, Great Mosque of Beershevawhen it was re-purposed to function as the Negev Museum of Archaeology. In the 1990s, it underwent a long process of restoration, followed by series of court cases to determine the appropriate future use of the edifice. Finally, in 2011, the Be’er-Sheva mosque finally reopened as the Museum  of Islamic and Near Eastern Cultures. 

A smaller, private mosque without a minaret, the Baseiso Mosque, was built in 1931 by a wealthy local resident, Haj Isa Baseiso, and was consecrated and actively used for Muslim prayer until Be’er-Sheva was liberated from the Egyptian occupiers during the Israeli War of Independence in 1948.

In the BGU Student Union Building, there is a room reserved for Muslim prayers.BGU Student Union

Hall of Justice - mineThe recognized, regional Islamic Shari’ah Courts are situated in the Be’er-Sheva Hall of Justice, with all the other regional courts.

The Muslim Cemetery is located at the edge of the Old City (across the highway from the Negev Mall) and has a number of graves of significant local Bedouin figures.muslim-cemetery1

 

Christian Culture & Tradition

The WWI Commonwealth Cemeteris located just above the Old City and contains 1,238 well-kept graves marked by crosses for the Christian ANZAC soldiers (British, Australian & New Zealander) who died during the battles against the Ottoman Empire (Turks) at Be’er-Sheva and in the Negev Region between 1914-1918British-ANZAC CemeteryIn the last row on the right one can see the gravestone of Major Alexander Lafone (1870-1917), who was a recipient of the highest British award for bravery, the “Victoria Cross.” There is also one unusual group gravestone, marked with the British Airforce symbol in memory of 8 British pilots who had also perished in the region during WWI. Oddly, this memorial had actually been prepared out of a respect for their fallen peers by some German pilots who had fought for the Ottoman ‘enemy’; it was later found and added by the British to the Commonwealth Cemetery in Be’er-Sheva.

The large Ottoman-Turkish house (originally built in 1903 on ha-Avot St. in the Old City), now known as the “Mission House”  was first rented (1911) and then purchased (1913) by the American Christian and Missionary Alliance, serving as a pioneer center for missionary work with the region’s Bedouins and Arabs. Those missionaries were forced christian-mission-houseto leave temporarily during WWII, but the property was later restored to its rightful owners by the government of the State of Israel. From 1957, the Nachalat Yeshua” (lit., Jesus’ legacy) Messianic Congregation in Be’er-Sheva resided in another privately-owned building in the Old City (on Rambam St.) known as “The Bible House” and asHa-MaKoM(lit., the place or God). However, since 1995, this congregation has been using and preserving the historic Mission House building – 08-6277022.

To date, there is a small, international Catholic community that holds services on Sundays and Christian holidays, meeting in the Gimel neighborhood (51 ha-Shalom St.), under the auspices of Rev. Piotr Zelazko – 054-8061440.

Since “Our future is inspired by our past” – join the Society for the Preservation of Israel Heritage Sites www.shimur.org.il.

For example, we’re currently trying to save the house of the first Jewish Mayor 

Tuviyahu house - photo Ofer Yogevof Be’er-Sheva, David Tuviyahu (located in the Old City) from destruction for historic preservation.